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Міністерство освіти і науки України
ДНУ Вісник Дніпропетровського університету
Серія "Економіка"

Наукове видання
  • УДК 336:519
  • ISSN 9125 0912
  • Свідоцтво про державну реєстрацію друкованого засобу масової інформації КВ № 7898 від 17.09.2003 р.
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УДК 336

M. Y. Shevtsova*, B. Olber**

*Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk national university;

**Czestochowa University of Technology

HRM strategy for staff recruitment inpoland'sfinancialinstitutions

Статтю присвячено дослідженню існуючих методів та підходів, що використовуються спеціалістами з HR у фінансових установах Польщі під час прийняття на роботу персоналу. Також стаття демонструє схематичну модель управління людськими ресурсами в банків­ській системі Польщі.

Ключові слова: HR, управління людськими ресурсами, менеджмент персоналу, найм персоналу.

Данная статья посвящена изучению существующих методов и подходов, используемых HR специалистами в финансовых учреждениях Польши во время принятия на работу пер-сонала. Статья также демонстрирует схематическую модель менеджмента персонала, при-меняемую в банковской системе Польши.

Ключевые слова: HR, управление персоналом, менеджмент персонала, принятие на работу персонала.

The article is dedicated to the analysis of existing methods and approaches used by HR specia­lists in financial institutions of Poland for staff recruitment. The article also shows the schematic model of HR management applied currently in Poland's banking system.

Key words: HR, HR management, personnel management, staff recruitment.

Recently the role of HR management in a company is getting more important than ever. Particular attention is paid to maximize the efficiency of employees. As a result of such development the number of publications, which describe appropriate methods of HR management and offer either general or specific examples of effective communication with the staff, has increased.

Unfortunately, there are almost no publications dealing with HR management in financial institutions. Therefore it seems interesting to describe this process in banks as a system applicable also in other financial institutions. In particular it might be interesting to examine recruitment methods and approaches used by HR specialists in Polish banks.

Originally, the term «Human resource management» (HRM) was borrowed from the American scientific literature. In the eighties the term had become popular in the United States and at the turn of the nineties came to Europe. This concept is the expression of the search for a new formula, different from pre-existing ones, that is applied to perform HR-function, is defined as the «personnel management» and designed to respond to new challenges, resulting from changes in the environment of organizations [1].

Michael Armstrong, the leading theorist and practitioner in this sphere, defines HRM as follows: «HRM is regarded by some personnel managers as just a set of initials or old wine in new bottles. It could indeed be no more and no less than another name for personnel management, but as usually perceived, at least it has the virtue of emphasizing the virtue of treating people as a key resource, the management of which is the direct concern of top management as part of the strategic planning processes of the enterprise. Although there is nothing new in the idea, insufficient attention has been paid to it in many organizations» [2].

Also, «(...) it should be noted that the concept of human resources is different from the concept of management, despite simultaneous and strict relations occurring between these concepts. Human resources, labour factor, human capital, or other definitions come from the classic triad: land – work – capital and consider a man as afactor of production. However, this is a special factor, as it relates to development of the opportunities inherent in man himself and his ability to make economic choices, and (...) a specific need to recuperate their mental and physical strength» [3]. So recognition of HRM as a «method of personnel management» is not a mistake.

The purpose of human resources management, generally speaking, is to guide the employees to the greatest commitment and efficient contribution to success of the company. So «the aim of HRM is the realization of organizational objectives through high efficiency of work and human resources development while taking into account the objectives (interests) of employees' [4]. Therefore, harmonization the goals of business and workers' personal goals give a chance to obtain an effect of the strengthening of employee engagement and effectiveness of their work.

In the presented study direct measurement survey supported by observations was used. In order to obtain information concerning the personnel, which banks include in the documentation of personnel policy, and which are classified as information that cannot be obtain directly, the questionnaire was used. Besides, the advanced, standardized interview was conducted.

The survey was conducted among the branch managers, and persons competent in matters of personnel. The study covered by representatives, selected for the pilot scientific poll from 10 banks, located in Poland. Respondents were forewarned about the content of the survey. It was important to reflect in the study the guidelines and peculiarities of personnel policy of the banks.

The purpose of the interview was to obtain specific information on topics related to the model of staff recruitment process and management in banks. Personnel process is asystematic pattern of how to behave with employees; therefore one can make an assumption that it is a model of human resource management. Employee meets with every next component, when passes through organization, not necessarily being aware of the guidelines, which are guided by his superiors.

From the results of subsequent analysis of the questions in the questionnaire sheets, emerged the system composed of specific elements of the process of staff forming in the shape of certain outline model of employee management that common to thesurveyed banks (Table 1).

Table 1

Human resource management model shown by preliminary studies

Employment prediction technique

managerial assessment

characteristics required of candidates

necessary

motivation to work and appropriate personality

appreciated

theoretical knowledge, practical skills and experience

source of recruitment

external recruitment

advertisements in the media and in public institutions

internal recruitment

personal contacts and co-opting

selection procedure

hybrid

selection techniques

interview, application, references, certificates and diplomas

assessment criteria

qualifications, performance, behavioural and personality

assessment techniques

employee assessment sheet and ranking

training techniques

training and coaching

instruments of motivation

incentive measures

bonuses, awards, compliments and pay systems

coercive measures

regulations and work instructions, orders and recommendations

means of persuasion

goal setting and consultation

components of remuneration

basic salary and bonuses

technique for calculating the remuneration

time – bonus

Source: own studies.

To bring the outline of this system we began from employment forecasts, which are built upon a managerial assessment (Fig. 1). Manager as a person, who is «the closest to the problem», declares about the need for staff to the personnel (HR) department, which starts recruitment. This need may be caused either new tasks that appeared or necessity to meet the maintenance of increasing amount of customers.

Techniques used in predicting the employment

Fig.1. Techniques used in predicting the employment

Source: own studies

The analysis shows that the characteristics that are most desirable at the new candidates are motivation to work and personal characteristics (Fig. 2). From the employee's proper motivation and attitude, which are the result of the specific personality traits, according to respondents depend the employee’s fast acclimatization in the bank and the effectiveness of his/her further work. However, theoretical knowledge, practical skills and experience are also appreciated.

Characteristics required from candidates

Fig. 2. Characteristics required from candidates

Source: own studies

Theoretical knowledge is helpful in the implementation of the employee, and provides a base for training; however it is not necessary because the employee gets the essential information during the training. Practical skills are also a good base to start work as well as theoretical knowledge; also employee will be acquiring them during work.

The sources of staff recruitment to the bank (Fig. 3) are different. External recruitment advertisements in the media and in public institutions give the opportunity to reach a wide range of potential employees.

Sources of recruitment in bank

Fig. 3. Sources of recruitment in bank

Source: own studies

However, for internal recruitment the main sources are personal contacts and co-opting, which significantly solves the problem of self-identification within the company. The employee hired in this way from the beginning willingly takes part in company's life, and at the start has been supported by the senior colleague of the company. Selection of aspiring candidates is also the important component of staff recruitment strategy (Fig.4).

For this purpose, a hybrid procedure is applied. It allows choosing a larger pool of candidates than the method of «hurdler» while being more corresponding to the criterion of employment than in the method of compensation.

The most commonly used selection techniques

Fig. 4. The most commonly used selection techniques

Source: own studies

Techniques, which are used in the selection of candidates, are:

– interview because of the possibility best assessment of the candidate, in most cases excludes the possibility of confusion,

– applications, which are a necessity,

– references providing some confirmation of skills and experience of the candidate,

– certificates and diplomas.

Among the already employed workers during assessment were indicated the following assessment criteria: qualifications, performance, behavior and personality (Fig. 5). They all are applied at the same time as mutually complementary, and giving acomplete picture of the employee.

Assessment criteria

Fig. 5. Assessment criteria

Source: own studies

Among the techniques of for assessing constants for all being compared banks are employee assessment sheet and ranking (Fig. 6). Such methods are applied due to the simplicity of their use by delegated managers.

Among the banks that are compared in the area of such training techniques (Fig. 7) as arecurring are mentioned training and coaching. These techniques are complementary. Trainings are necessary for the education of a newly hired employee to the basic skills required in the workplace. At the same time coaching is a method which is used to develop the already employed workers.

Remuneration components (Fig. 8), which are common to the tested banks are: basic wages and bonuses. Basic wage gives workers a sense of security, while the bonuses are a great way to reward employees. As a common technique for calculating the remuneration may be given the technique of time-bonus. Since the bonus element is not a permanent addition to the basic salary, its efficiency is higher than the temporal method.

Assessment techniques

Fig. 6. Assessment techniques

Source: own studies

The professional development techniques

Fig. 7. The professional development techniques

Source: own studies

Survey of the instruments of motivation (Table 2) has also shown, as in other cases, some constant features that indicate the existence of a single scheme.

Thus we can distinguish incentives (bonuses, awards, pay systems, praise), coercive measures (rules and institutions work, commands, recommendations), and the means of persuasion (goal setting, consultation). Their value consists in a possibility to specify scheme.

As is apparent from the analysis of the selected sector in banks, assumptions concerning personnel function, defined in the personnel policy, are realized. Conducted preliminary study helped to demonstrate that under the personnel policy, there is a common for the bank as a specific type of organization, human resource management scheme. Indicated assumptions can be the basis for creating the system of personnel management in financial institutions as the outline of the model in question.

Used elements of remuneration

Fig. 8. Used elements of remuneration

Source: own studies

Table 2

The instruments of motivation

Type of instruments
to motivate

Instrument for motivating

Share of banks using the
instruments

incentive
measures

pay systems

85,7%

premiums

100,0%

awards

85,7%

praise

71,4%

flexible working time

28,6%

social benefits

57,1%

various forms of awards and acknowledgments

42,9%

self-development opportunities

57,1%

autonomy in carrying out tasks

14,3%

coercive
measures

labor standards

28,6%

regulations and work instructions

100,0%

commands

14,3%

warrants

28,6%

prohibitions

28,6%

command

100,0%

recommendations

100,0%

own commitments and obligations taken upon himself voluntarily

28,6%

means
of persuasion

goal setting

100,0%

management style

42,9%

participation in management

14,3%

negotiations

42,9%

suggesting

42,9%

consultation

57,1%

Source: own studies.

Among the factors that can form the basis of such scheme is necessary to distinguish:

1. The basic technique for predicting the employment is managerial assessment. This may be caused by a trend that inherent to banks and other financial institutions, which are developing more and more new branches or smaller local units, where a manager is the person who reports about the needs for staff.

2. Features such as self-motivation and the corresponding personality are the guarantee of good work in a team, so special attention is paid these attributes. Any manager seeks to establish the best team. Theoretical knowledge, practical skills and experience will help if the candidate has previously performed similar work, but it is not necessary because the employees at financial institutions are trained for the job.

3. Advertisements in the media and in public institutions are used in recruiting, especially for employees without experience or practical skills. Emphasis on the personality, personal contacts and co-opting as guarantee for rapid integration into a team of employees is necessary in the recruitment.

4. The motivation to work and the corresponding personality are difficult to examine because mixed selection technique is applied.

5. The criteria, which used by the company, are: interview, application, references, certificates and diplomas. Verifying the candidate from the formal point is necessary procedure, which requires references and certificates and diplomas. Applications and interviews allow showing silhouette of the candidate in terms of required characteristics.

6. The sheet of employee assessment and ranking illustrates clearly the progress in the career of employee and his/her development. In addition, they allow employees to compare their achievements with the results of colleagues.

7. Practical skills and experience are developed through training, and with the development of the coaching employee.

8. The elements of applied training system are linked to measures used as instruments of motivation. In front of an employee goals are placed, which must be achieved, and due to the coaching he can always expect for consultations.

The obtained results allow concluding that the connection of particular elements could create the coherent system. Therefore, it can also be noted that elements, consisting on the common model of human resource management, exist in the examined group of banking institutions.

Bibliography

1. Armstrong M. Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkim: Oficyna Ekonomiczna wyd. – Kraków, 2000. – Р. 26.

2. Borkowski S. [red. naukowa], Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi w Polsce przeszłość, teraźniejszość, przyszłość: wyd. Oficyna Wolters Kluwer business. – Kraków, 2007. – Р.242. [Armstrong M. A handbook of human resource management practice / M. Arm­strong. – Cambridge University Press, 2006. – 982 p. – Р. 18.]

3. Gablota M. Potencjał pracy w przedsiębiorstwie kształtowanie i wykorzystywanie : wyd.2, poprawione: Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej im. Oscara we Wrocławiu. – Wrocław, 1998. – Р. 200–202.

4. Pocztowski A. Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi : zarys problematyki i metod : wyd. Kraków Oficyna Wydaw. ANTYKWA s. c. – KRAKOW, 1998. – Р. 19.

5. Współczesne tendencje w zarządzaniu zasobami pracy // Materiały z międzynarodowej konferencji zorganizowanej przez Katedrę Zarządzania Zasobami Pracy Akademii Ekonomicznej w Krakowie. – Kraków, 1997 – Р. 107.

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